Lateral ankle sprain:
Occurs when the ankle is rolled outwards. Usually results in injury to at least 1 of the 3 lateral ankle ligaments. We grade these injuries from 1 to 3.
Grade 1 Sprain – a stretch of the ligament with limited damage to the tissue and no tearing.
Grade 2 Sprain – partial tearing of 1 or more ligaments.
Grade 3 Sprain – full thickness tear of 1 or more ligaments.
Healing time or return to sport is 1 week to 6 months depending on severity.
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Sprain:
Usually occurs when there has been a force applied to the outside of the knee, such as a rugby tackle. This stresses the medial ligament causing injury. Pain is localised to the inside of the knee.
Caused by an aggravation of the underside of the patella and the condyles of the femur. This is usually a result of poor biomechanics or muscle imbalance but can also be caused by trauma to the patella. Pain is hard to pin-point but is almost always in the front of the knee.
The meniscus is the cartilage in the knee and is usually torn by a twisting movement when the knee is bent.
AC Joint Sprain:
The Acromioclavicular joint is where the clavicle (collar bone) meets the scapular (shoulder blade). It is held together by ligaments. When a force is applied to the AC joint such as a fall onto the point of the shoulder these ligaments are stressed and can tear. The result is the clavicle can partially or fully detach from the scapular leaving a visible bump on the top of the shoulder.
Rotator Cuff Strain:
The rotator cuff is term used for a collection of muscles that stabilise and rotate the shoulder. Injury to these muscles or their tendons can be quite debilitating and may cause altered shoulder movement patterns. Early diagnosis and treatment is important and rehabilitation can be quite prolonged.
Low Back and Neck Pain:
Low back and neck pain can be caused by muscle, joint, disc or nerve injury. It is important to get an accurate diagnosis so that an appropriate treatment plan can be implemented.
The term sciatica refers to pain caused by irritation of the sciatic nerve or its nerve roots. Pain can be anywhere along the path of the sciatic nerve (e.g. low back /buttock /hip /groin /thigh /calf /shin/foot). You may also experience pins and needles, numbness or altered sensation along this pathway.
The scaphoid is a small bone at the base of the thumb (where the thumb meets the wrist). Fractures in this bone are usually the result of a fall onto the palm of an outstretched hand. If you have pain in this area following such a fall it is important to get it assessed and X-rayed as complications of scaphoid fractures include avascular necrosis. Avascular necrosis is where the bone dies as a result of lack of blood supply. It is a disease process that can spread.